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, 2016 Summer Paralympics. Rio de Janeiro, Portuguese: ) sports Opening ceremony Closing ceremony Officially opened by Vice President Michel Temer Athlete's Oath Robert Scheidt Judge's Oath Coach's Oath Adriana Santos Olympic Torch Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima Stadium Maracanã Stadium London 2012 Tokyo 2020  > Sochi 2014 PyeongChang 2018  > Bid process (bid details) (venues, torch relay) (mascots) Broadcasters Opening ceremony (flag bearers) Chronological summary Medal table (medallists) Controversies (prior doping offences • ticket scandal • Lochtegate) World and Olympic records Closing ceremony (flag bearers) Paralympics IOC COB COJOPR (Portuguese: ), officially known as the and commonly known as , was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games ever to be held in South America. National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, and the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009. These sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, and at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília, and Manaus. International Olympic Committee (IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach. The host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio became the first South American city ever to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held entirely in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere. controversies, including the instability of Brazil's federal government; the country's economic crisis; health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a doping scandal involving Russia, which affected the participation of its athletes in the Games. United States topped the medal table for the fifth time in the past six Summer Olympics, winning the most golds (46) and most medals overall (121), as well as its 1,000th Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place. Bahrain, Fiji, Jordan, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes (from Kuwait). edit A young girl adds her signature in support of Rio de Janeiro's candidacy. The bid committee, led by Carlos Arthur Nuzman, giving a press conference. Bids for the 2016 Summer Olympics The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020. The IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut. Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. Tokyo bid Rio de Janeiro  Brazil Madrid  Spain Tokyo  Japan Chicago  United States edit that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons. Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO. edit Venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics Venues of the 2016 Summer Olympics Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than ten minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locations, eight of them underwent permanent works, seven were limited, and nine were perpetual legacy venues. seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals. The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events. edit Barra Olympic Park Barra Olympic Park Barra da Tijuca, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The site of the Olympic Park was formerly occupied by the Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet, also known as Jacarepaguá. Carioca Arena 1: basketball (capacity: 16,000); Carioca Arena 2: wrestling, judo (capacity: 10,000); Carioca Arena 3: fencing, taekwondo (capacity: 10,000); Future Arena: handball (capacity: 12,000); Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre: diving, synchronised swimming, water polo (capacity: 5,000); Olympic Aquatics Stadium: swimming, water polo play-offs (capacity: 15,000); Olympic Tennis Centre: tennis (capacity: 10,000 Main Court); Rio Olympic Arena: gymnastics (capacity: 12,000); and Rio Olympic Velodrome: track cycling (capacity: 5,000). edit Football at the 2016 Summer Olympics São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília and Manaus. Maracanã Stadium Rio de Janeiro, RJ Olympic Stadium Rio de Janeiro, RJ Arena da Amazônia Manaus, AM Arena Corinthians São Paulo, SP Arena Fonte Nova Salvador, BA Estádio Nacional Brasília, DF Mineirão Belo Horizonte, MG edit Museum of Tomorrow, designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. Port of Rio de Janeiro downtown underwent an urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha. It covers 5 km (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aimed to redevelop the port area, increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio's competitive position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants. As part of this renovation, a new tram was built from the Santos Dumont Airport to Rodoviária Novo Rio. It was due to open in April 2016. edit The 2016 Summer Olympics medals Casa da Moeda do Brasil. The bronze and silver medals contained 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold that had been mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The medals feature a wreath design, while the obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. They were accompanied by a wooden carrying box, while medallists also received a trophy of the Games' emblem. Associated Press article disclosed that more than 100 athletes from around the world reported that their medals had damage, including black spots, flaking, or surface degrading. Rio officials offered to replace any defective medals and found problems with 6 to 7 percent of all awarded medals. edit Future Arena, a temporary venue whose modules will be reconstructed into schools. sustainability and environmental protection as a theme of these Games, going on to dub them a "Green Games for a Blue Planet". As legacy projects, organisers intended to introduce a wider array of public transport options, upgrade the infrastructure of the favelas to provide improved transport and access to utilities, upgrade Rio's sewer system in order to remediate the level of pollution in the Guanabara Bay. and plant 24 million seedlings to offset the expected carbon emissions of the Games. However, some of these projects were met with delays or faced with economic shortfalls, which led some critics to believe that Rio would not be able to accomplish them. kinetic sculpture to enhance its appearance in lieu of a larger body of flames. The bronze and silver medals, as well as ribbons on all medals, incorporate recycled materials, and athletes were not presented with flowers during medal ceremonies, as had been traditionally done at prior Olympics (although flowers were still used as part of the staging of medal presentations). Organisers considered the practice to be wasteful since they were often thrown away, and "would struggle to survive in the tropical Brazilian climate" if kept. The podiums were also designed so that their materials could be recycled to make furniture. The Future Arena, host of handball competitions, was designed as a modular temporary venue whose components can be reconstructed to build schools. However, as of November 2017, the arena is still standing because of lack of money to dismantle it and no allocation of funds to do so in the 2018 budget. opening ceremony were also dedicated to the issue of climate change. edit 2016 Summer Olympics torch relay Torch relay in Brasília, with the volleyball player Fabiana Claudino Olympia on 21 April 2016, the traditional start of the Greek phase of the torch relay. On 27 April the flame was handed over to the Brazilian organisers at a ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. A brief stop was made in Switzerland to visit the IOC headquarters and the Olympic Museum in Lausanne as well as the United Nations Office at Geneva. Brasília. The torch relay visited more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), with the last part held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, lighting the cauldron during the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony on 5 August. edit Volunteers also wore photo accreditation badges which were also worn by officials, athletes, family members and media which gain them access to specific venues and buildings around the site. edit Brazilian reais (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets were to be sold in total, with ticket prices ranging from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets were available for BRL 70 or less. edit edit 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony and 2016 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations A scene from the opening ceremony. Maracana Stadium on 5 August 2016, and was directed by Fernando Meirelles, Daniela Thomas and Andrucha Waddington. The ceremony highlighted aspects of Brazilian history and culture, and featured a segment narrated by Fernanda Montenegro and Judi Dench with an appeal to environmental conservation and preventing global warming. The ceremony also featured the inaugural presentation of the Olympic Laurel, an honour bestowed by the IOC to those that have made "significant achievements in education, culture, development and peace through sport", to Kipchoge "Kip" Keino. The Games were officially opened by Acting President of Brazil Michel Temer. Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima, the men's marathon bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics who was also awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship by the IOC after being attacked by a spectator and losing his lead. The cauldron was originally expected to be lit by Brazilian footballer Pelé, but he declined to participate due to health problems. Following the opening ceremony, a public cauldron was lit in front of the Candelária Church by Jorge Gomes, a 14-year-old Brazilian athlete who had escaped from poverty to train as a runner. edit Diving Swimming Synchronized swimming Water polo Archery Athletics Badminton Basketball Boxing Canoeing Cycling competitors) Equestrian Fencing Field hockey Football Golf Gymnastics Handball Judo Modern pentathlon Rowing Rugby sevens Sailing Shooting Table tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Weightlifting Wrestling edit 121st IOC Session Olympic Golf Course Deodoro Stadium softball (which were dropped in 2005), karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Formal presentations were held for the IOC executive board in June 2009. In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-player version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention. Among the remaining three—golf, kathe remaining two sports was made on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required. International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing, but this decision was reversed in November. The IOC announced in January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events, following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that cycling's governing body had covered up doping. edit Participating countries. = Participating for the first time. = Have previously participated. Yellow square is host city (Rio de Janeiro) Team numbers. National Olympic Committees have qualified at least one athlete.] The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games. Australian Olympic team uniforms for Rio 2016 Brazilian delegation at the opening ceremony The 2016 Summer Olympics were the first games in which Kosovo and South Sudan were eligible to participate. Bulgarian and Russian weightlifters were banned from Rio Olympics for numerous anti-doping violations. Kuwait was banned in October 2015 for the second time in five years over government interference in the country's Olympic committee. National Olympic Committees  Afghanistan   Albania   Algeria   American Samoa   Andorra   Angola   Antigua and Barbuda   Argentina   Armenia   Aruba   Australia   Austria   Azerbaijan   Bahamas   Bahrain   Bangladesh   Barbados   Belarus   Belgium   Belize   Benin   Bermuda   Bhutan   Bolivia   Bosnia and Herzegovina   Botswana   Brazil   British Virgin Islands   Brunei   Bulgaria   Burkina Faso   Burundi   Cambodia   Cameroon   Canada   Cape Verde   Cayman Islands   Central African Republic   Chad   Chile   China   Colombia   Comoros   Congo   Democratic Republic of the Congo   Cook Islands   Costa Rica   Croatia   Cuba   Cyprus   Czech Republic   Denmark   Djibouti   Dominica   Dominican Republic   Ecuador   Egypt   El Salvador   Equatorial Guinea   Eritrea   Estonia   Ethiopia   Fiji   Finland   France   Gabon   The Gambia   Georgia   Germany   Ghana   Great Britain   Greece   Grenada   Guam   Guatemala   Guinea   Guinea-Bissau   Guyana   Haiti   Honduras   Hong Kong   Hungary   Iceland   India   Indonesia   Iran   Iraq   Ireland   Israel   Italy   Ivory Coast   Jamaica   Japan   Jordan   Kazakhstan   Kenya   Kiribati   North Korea   South Korea   Kosovo   Independent Olympic Athletes   Kyrgyzstan   Laos   Latvia   Lebanon   Lesotho   Liberia   Libya   Liechtenstein   Lithuania   Luxembourg   Macedonia   Madagascar   Malawi   Malaysia   Maldives   Mali   Malta   Marshall Islands   Mauritania   Mauritius   Mexico   Federated States of Micronesia   Moldova   Monaco   Mongolia   Montenegro   Morocco   Mozambique   Myanmar   Namibia   Nauru   Nepal   Netherlands   New Zealand   Nicaragua   Niger   Nigeria   Norway   Oman   Pakistan   Palau   Palestine   Panama   Papua New Guinea   Paraguay   Peru   Philippines   Poland   Portugal   Puerto Rico   Qatar   Refugee Olympic Team   Romania   Russia   Rwanda   Saint Kitts and Nevis   Saint Lucia   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   Samoa   San Marino   São Tomé and Príncipe   Saudi Arabia   Senegal   Serbia   Seychelles   Sierra Leone   Singapore   Slovakia   Slovenia   Solomon Islands   Somalia   South Africa   Spain   Sri Lanka   Sudan   South Sudan   Suriname   Swaziland   Sweden   Switzerland   Syria   Chinese Taipei   Tajikistan   Tanzania   Thailand   East Timor   Togo   Tonga   Trinidad and Tobago   Tunisia   Turkey   Turkmenistan   Tuvalu   Uganda   Ukraine   United Arab Emirates   United States   Uruguay   Uzbekistan   Vanuatu   Venezuela   Vietnam   Virgin Islands   Yemen   Zambia   Zimbabwe  edit IOC  United States  Brazil  Germany  Australia  China  France  Great Britain  Japan  Canada  Italy  Spain  Russia  Poland  Netherlands  South Korea  Ukraine  New Zealand  Hungary  Sweden  Colombia  South Africa  Mexico  India  Denmark  Belarus  Cuba  Egypt  Belgium  Czech Republic  Kazakhstan  Serbia  Switzerland  Turkey  Romania  Greece  Portugal  Kenya  Croatia  Venezuela  Ireland  Nigeria  Austria  Uzbekistan  Jamaica  Lithuania  Algeria  Iran  Norway  Slovenia  Tunisia  Chinese Taipei  Azerbaijan  Finland  Thailand  Bulgaria  Fiji  Morocco  Slovakia  Israel  Estonia  Mongolia  Chile  Puerto Rico  Georgia  Ecuador  Hong Kong  Qatar  Bahrain  North Korea  Ethiopia  Latvia  Montenegro  Armenia  Malaysia  Trinidad and Tobago  Zimbabwe  Dominican Republic  Peru  Bahamas  Indonesia  Honduras  Angola  Singapore  Cameroon  Iraq  Moldova  Vietnam  Senegal  Guatemala  Uganda  Kyrgyzstan  Uruguay  Cyprus  Ghana  Philippines  United Arab Emirates  Barbados  Bolivia  Botswana  Eritrea  Ivory Coast  Mauritius  Saudi Arabia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Paraguay  Congo  Costa Rica  Haiti  Luxembourg  Namibia  Panama  Refugee Olympic Team  Seychelles edit Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics European migrant crisis and other reasons, the IOC allowed athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag. In the previous Summer Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete because of their inability to represent their home NOCs. On 2 March 2016, the IOC finalised plans for a specific Refugee Olympic Team (ROT); out of 43 refugee athletes deemed potentially eligible, 10 were chosen to form the team. edit Independent Olympic Athletes at the 2016 Summer Olympics Russia was provisionally suspended from all international track and field athletic competitions by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) following a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report into a doping program in the country. The IAAF announced that it would allow individual Russian athletes to apply for "exceptional eligibility" to participate in the Games as "neutral" athletes, if it were independently verified that they had not engaged in doping nor in the Russian doping program. Olympic Charter "does not foresee such 'neutral athletes'" and that it was up to each country's National Olympic Committee to decide which athletes would be competing. edit Barra da Tijuca Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Convention Center Botafogo Gamboa Ipanema Leblon Parque Lage, Jardim Botânico Gávea Lagoa Holland Heineken House (Casa da Holanda) PyeongChang 2018 Copacabana Beach Tokyo 2020 Paço Imperial edit Chronological summary of the 2016 Summer Olympics Brasília Time (UTC–3) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Ceremonies Archery Athletics Badminton Basketball Boxing Canoeing Slalom Sprint Cycling Road cycling Track cycling BMX Mountain biking Diving Equestrian Fencing Field hockey Football Golf Gymnastics Artistic Rhythmic Trampolining Handball Judo Modern pentathlon Rowing Rugby sevens Sailing Shooting Swimming Synchronized swimming Table tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Beach volleyball Indoor volleyball Water polo Weightlifting Wrestling Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun edit World and Olympic records set at the 2016 Summer Olympics edit The medals designed for the Olympics. They were designed to be environmentally friendly from recycled materials. 2016 Summer Olympics medal table NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. Host nation Brazil finished in 13th place with a total of 19 medals (7 gold, 6 silver, and 6 bronze). icon next to the column title.  United States   Great Britain   China   Russia   Germany   Japan   France   South Korea   Italy   Australia  Remaining NOCs Host nation (Brazil) (Brazil is ranked at #13. See the complete medals table at 2016 Summer Olympics medal table.) edit Athletics Women's 100 metre hurdles  United States Brianna Rollins Nia Ali Kristi Castlin edit The public cauldron, located outside the Candelária Church. NBC (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has sometimes allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximise U.S. television ratings when possible), as well as the main Brazilian rightsholder Rede Globo. As Brasília time is only one hour ahead of the U.S. Eastern Time Zone, certain marquee events were scheduled to occur during U.S. primetime hours (traditionally 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. ET, 9:00 p.m. to midnight BRT) allowing them to be broadcast live on the east coast as opposed to being delayed. This practice was also to the benefit of Globo; a Brazilian television critic noted that Globo very rarely pre-empts its primetime telenovelas, which are among the highest-rated programs on Brazilian television. Globo artistic developer Monica Albuquerque did not rule out doing so during special circumstances, however. edit 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony and 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony flag bearers 2016 Summer Olympics closing ceremony at Maracanã Stadium closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics was held on 21 August 2016 from 20:00 to 22:50 BRT at the Maracanã Stadium. As per traditional Olympic protocol, the ceremony featured cultural presentations from both the current (Brazil) and following (Japan) host countries, as well as closing remarks by IOC president Thomas Bach and the leader of the Games' organizing committee Carlos Arthur Nuzman, the official handover of the Olympic flag from Rio de Janeiro mayor Eduardo Paes to Tokyo governor Yuriko Koike, whose city will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, and the extinguishing of the Olympic flame. Rosa Magalhães. Amid heavy rainfall, the ceremony began with interpretive dancers representing various landmarks in the host city. Martinho da Vila then performed a rendition of the classic song "Carinhosopt)" by Pixinguinha. In another segment, introducing the athletes, pop singer Roberta Sá channeled Carmen Miranda, the fruit-headdress-wearing, midcentury Hollywood diva who endures as a beloved camp figure. The Parade of Flags followed shortly after a choir of 27 children, representing the states of Brazil, sang the Brazilian national anthem. edit estimated the out-turn cost of the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics at USD 4.6 billion in 2015-dollars. This figure included sports-related costs, that is, (i) incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, of which the largest components were technology, transportation, workforce, and administration costs, while other operational costs included security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which were required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs were included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Rio Olympics' cost of USD 4.6 billion compares with costs of USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the two most expensive Olympics in history. The average cost of the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion. edit List of 2016 Summer Olympics broadcasters International Broadcast Centre, at Barra Olympic Park Olympic Broadcasting Services served as the host broadcaster for these Games; produced from a total of 7 mobile units, OBS distributed 40,000 hours of television footage and 60,000 hours of digital footage of the Games to its international rightsholders; for the first time in Olympic history, digital-oriented footage exceeded the amount of television-oriented footage. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed in the Barra da Tijuca cluster. NHK and OBS once again filmed portions of the Games, including the opening ceremony and selected events, in 8K resolution video. Additionally, expanding upon a 180-degree trial at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, 85 hours of video content were originated in 360-degree virtual reality formats. In the United States, NBC offered 4K content, downconverted from the 8K footage and with HDR and Dolby Atmos support, to participating television providers. Owing to their expertise in domestic broadcasts of the new sports introduced in Rio, NBC and Sky New Zealand staff handled the production of the golf and rugby sevens events on behalf of OBS. Grupo Globo. Replacing Record TV the deal covers free-to-air coverage on Rede Globo, pay TV, and digital rights to the Games. In turn, Globo sub-licensed partial free-to-air rights to Rede Record, along with Rede Bandeirantes. IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as "unprecedented", touting that "by working with Brazil's leading media organizations, we are confident that this represents a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a huge increase in the amount of Olympic action broadcast, both during and outside Games time, and Brazilians will have more choice of how, when and where they follow their Olympic Games." edit edit Portuguese: ). It was chosen to highlight the commitment of the Games organiser to make the world peace, united and a better place to live as well as a legacy for future generations through the hosting of the Olympics..The choice of this motto was also caused by the fact that this edition is the first to be held in South America. edit Vinicius and Tom Vinicius (left), the mascot of the 2016 Summer Olympics, and Tom (right), the mascot of the 2016 Summer Paralympics. official mascots of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 November 2014. They were created by Sao Paulo-based animation company Birdo. The Olympic mascot Vinicius, named after musician Vinicius de Moraes, represents Brazilian wildlife and carries design traits of cats, monkeys, and birds. According to their fictional backgrounds, the mascots "were both born from the joy of Brazilians after it was announced that Rio would host the Games." Brand director Beth Lula stated that the mascots were intended to reflect the diversity of Brazil's culture and people. The names of the mascots were determined by a public vote whose results were announced on 14 December 2014; the names, which reference the co-writers of the song "The Girl from Ipanema", won over two other sets of names, tallying 44 percent of 323,327 votes. At the Olympic wrestling events, coaches were given plush dolls of Vinicius to throw into the ring when they wished to challenge a referee's call. edit The logo represents three figures joined at their arms and feet, with the overall shape reflecting that of Sugarloaf Mountain. The emblem was also designed to have a three-dimensional form, which designer Fred Gelli claimed made it the "first 3D logo in the history of the Olympics." Henri Matisse's painting Dance. There were also allegations by the Colorado-based Telluride Foundation that the logo had been plagiarised from its own. While also consisting of several figures linked in motion, the Telluride Foundation logo contains four figures. This is not the first time that the foundation had alleged plagiarism of its logo by a Brazilian event; in 2004, the linked figures element had been copied for the logo of Carnival celebrations in Salvador. Gelli defended the allegations, stating that the concept of figures linked in embrace was not inherently original as it was "an ancient reference" and "in the collective unconscious". Gelli cited as an influence of the logo's concept, and stated that the designers had intentionally aimed to make the interpretation of the concept as dissimilar to others as possible. edit Concerns and controversies at the 2016 Summer Olympics Fort Copacabana hosted the cycling road race (start and finish), marathon swimming and triathlon events. Marina da Glória, locale of sailing competitions ongoing outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil raised fears regarding its potential impact on athletes and visitors. To prevent puddles of stagnant water that allow mosquitoes to breed, organisers announced plans to perform daily inspections of Olympic venues. Zika virus transmission was also attributed to in the area—an issue that was also in the process of being addressed for the Games. In May 2016, a group of 150 physicians and scientists sent an open letter to the World Health Organization, calling upon them to, according to co-author Arthur Caplan, have "an open, transparent discussion of the risks of holding the Olympics as planned in Brazil". The WHO dismissed the request, stating that "cancelling or changing the location of the 2016 Olympics will not significantly alter the international spread of Zika virus", and that there was "no public health justification" for postponing them. Some athletes did not attend the Games because of the epidemic. On 2 September 2016, the World Health Organization reported that there were no confirmed cases of Zika among athletes or visitors during the Olympics. Guanabara Bay, whose waters were used for sailing and windsurfing competitions, is heavily polluted. Among the chief causes of the pollution are uncollected trash fed into the bay via polluted rivers and slums along the coast. Pollution of the Guanabara has been a long-term issue. Officials promised at the Earth Summit in 1992 that they would begin to address the pollution but previous attempts to do so have been insufficient. As an aspect of their bid for the Games, Rio once again committed to making efforts towards cleaning the bay. However, some of these proposed initiatives have faced budgetary issues. Prior to these efforts, only 17% of Rio's sewage was treated; this raw sewage also leaked into the bay. Although Mayor of Rio Eduardo Paes stated that the city may not be able to reach its goal of having 80% of sewage treated, at least 60% of sewage was treated by March 2016, with a projected goal of 65% of sewage being treated by the time the Olympics started. Operation Car Wash, an investigation by the Federal Police of Brazil, uncovered unprecedented money laundering and corruption at the state-controlled oil company Petrobras. In early 2015, a series of protests against alleged corruption by the government of President Dilma Rousseff began in Brazil, triggered by revelations that numerous politicians were involved in the Petrobras affair. By early 2016, the scandal had escalated into a full-blown political crisis affecting not only President Rousseff, but also former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, resulting in massive demonstrations all over the country involving millions of protesters, both anti and pro-Rousseff. At the same time, Brazil faced its worst economic recession since the 1990s, raising questions about whether the country was adequately prepared for the Games against a volatile political and economic backdrop. On 12 May, President Rousseff was stripped of her powers and duties for 180 days, after an impeachment vote in the Federal Senate, thus Vice President Michel Temer acted as acting president during the Games. F-5EM Tiger II fighter jet of the Brazilian Air Force during an air intercept training for the 2016 Olympic Games. Rio 2016 Olympic Village The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring just one day after it was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics. The estimate was that 5,000 men of the National Public Security Force and 22,000 military officers (14,800 Army; 5,900 Navy and 1,300 of the Brazilian Air Force), in addition to the fixed quota of Rio January, would act during the Olympic Games. On 21 July 2016, two weeks before the scheduled start of the Games, the Brazilian Federal Police broke up an Islamic jihadist terrorist ring by arresting 12 people. On 21 April—the day that the Olympic torch was lit—a 50 metres (164 ft) section of the Tim Maia bike path, crossing the Oscar Niemeyer Avenue in São Conrado neighborhood and a part of the legacy of the Games, was hit by a giant wave and collapsed, causing the death of two pedestrians and injuries to three more. The athlete's village has been described as the largest in Olympic history, but two weeks before the Olympics opened, officials also described it as "unliveable" and unsafe because of major plumbing and electrical hazards, blocked toilets, leaking pipes, exposed wiring, darkened stairwells where no lighting has been installed, and dirty floors. More than 500 employees of the local Olympic committee worked to fix the problems reported by the delegations. Carlos Nuzman, was arrested amid an money laundering investigation that a $2 million payment was made to secure votes for the bid to bring the Olympics to Rio. The money was allegedly paid to Lamine Diack and his son Papa Massata who was a member of the IOC at the time of the alleged payment which was three days before the vote in 2009. All 3 were charged with money laundering along with the former governor of Rio state Sergio Cabral, who was already in prison for money laundering offences at the time, Brazilian businessman Arthur Soares and ex Brazilian Olympic Committee chief Leonardo Gryner. All 6 were charged with running a criminal organisation, money laundering and violating currency laws in their own native countries. edit Doping in Russia and McLaren Report ARD reported on state-sponsored doping in Russia, comparing it to doping in East Germany. In November 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published a report and the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) suspended Russia indefinitely from world track and field events. The United Kingdom Anti-Doping agency later assisted WADA with testing in Russia. In June 2016, they reported that they were unable to fully carry out their work and noted intimidation by armed Federal Security Service (FSB) agents. After a Russian former lab director made allegations about the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, WADA commissioned an independent investigation led by Richard McLaren. McLaren's investigation found corroborating evidence, concluding in a report published in July 2016 that the Ministry of Sport and the FSB had operated a "state-directed failsafe system" using a "disappearing positive [test] methodology" (DPM) from "at least late 2011 to August 2015". The IOC rejected the recommendation, stating that the IOC and each sport's international federation would make decisions on each athlete's individual basis. One day prior to the opening ceremony, 278 athletes were cleared to compete under the Russian flag, while 111 were removed because of doping. In contrast, the entire Kuwaiti team was banned from competing under their own flag (for a non-doping related matter). International Paralympic Committee voted unanimously to ban the entire Russian team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics and suspended the Russian Paralympic Committee, having found evidence that the DPM was also in operation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics. Richard McLaren published the second part of his independent report. The investigation found that from 2011 to 2015, more than 1,000 Russian competitors in various sports (including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports) benefited from the cover-up. Emails indicate that they included five blind powerlifters, who may have been given drugs without their knowledge, and a fifteen-year-old. and Azerbaijan, Romania, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Moldova and North Korea all had some athletes banned from weightlifting for past doping violations. The Romanian and Belorussian teams were banned from the canoeing events all for past doping violations also. Despite these bans, a number of athletes failed drugs tests either before, during or after the Games, including 4 different medal winners who consequently has their medals stripped. (see Doping at the Olympic Games ) edit 2015 Pan American Games 2016 Summer Paralympics edit Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation is [ˈʒɔɡuz oˈlĩpikus dʒi veˈɾɐ̃w dʒi ˈdojz ˈmiw i dʒizeˈsejs], in Brazil's standard pronunciation. "Olympic Athletes". . Archived from the original on 21 August 2016 2016. "About Rio 2016 Summer Olympics". 2015. "Why Winter Olympics Bypass the Southern Hemisphere – Winter Olympics 2014". "2016 Bid Process Launched" (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 16 May 2007. "Four on 2016 Olympics short-list". BBC News. 4 June 2008 2010. "The International Olympic Committee (IOC) today released the report of the Evaluation" (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 2 September 2009 2017. Rings Around the World Archived 8 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Communicate magazine, April 2009 "Past Bid Results". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011 2015. "Around the Rings – Articles Archive". 2015. "Rio 2016™ contrata Renato Ciuchini como Diretor-Executivo Comercial" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. "Sports and Venues" , , , BOC, 16 February 2009, pp. 10–11, archived from the original on 23 May 2013 2015. "Introduction" , , , London, United Kingdom: BOC, 16 February 2009, archived from the original on 20 March 2009 2009. , Toronto, Canada: GamesBids, 9 March 2008, archived from the original on 23 October 2008 2009. "An introduction to the Venues at the 2016 Rio Games". 2016. "8,400 shuttlecocks, 250 golf carts, 54 boats... the mind-blowing numbers behind the Rio 2016 Games". Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. "Rio Olympics 2016: Brazilian city in a race against time to be ready to play host to the Games". ABC News Australia. Australian Broadcasting Corporation 2016. "Introducing Carioca Arena 1… the new home of Olympic basketball". . Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016. 12 January 2016. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016 2016. "Barra Region". . Governo Federal do Brasil. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016 2016. Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro City Hall. Retrieved 10 August 2012. . "Rio tram starts test running". . 26 November 2015 2016. "Innovative medal design unveiled for Rio 2016". IOC 2016. "Rio mystery solved: Why don't Olympic medal winners get flowers?". 2016. "Faster, higher, rustier: Medals from Rio Olympics damaged". Associated Press 2017. "Brazil Made Big Environmental Promises for Its Rio Olympics. Here's Why It Won't Keep Them". 2016. "Funding problems hit plan to clean Rio's polluted waterways ahead of Olympics". 2016. "Rio has broken its promise of an environmentally-friendly Olympics". 2016. "Diminutive Rio 2016 cauldron complemented by massive kinetic sculpture". 2016. "Here's why Olympic medalists don't get flowers at the Summer Games in Rio". 2016. "Rio 2016 handball arena will dismantle to become four schools". 2016. "No Answers Yet for Rio Olympic Park Dismantling". 2018. "The Rio Opening Ceremony Put Climate Change Front And Center". The Huffington Post. 6 August 2016 2016. "Greek fire lights up Rio 2016 Games... Olympic Torch lit in traditional ceremony at Olympia". . 21 April 2016. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016 2016. "Goiás will be the first state to receive the Rio 2016 Olympic Flame". . 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015 2015. "Thousands of Olympic volunteers quit over 'long hours and lack of food". independent. 30 December 2016 2016. "Volunteers set to make their mark at Rio 2016". Olympic. 30 December 2016 2016. "Prijzen tickets Olympische Spelen 2016 in Rio bekend". 16 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014 2014. "Olympic Games ticket prices September 2014" . Rio 2016. 16 September 2014. Archived from the original on 27 September 2014 2014. "Rio Olympics committee reveals opening ceremony details". China Central Television. 29 July 2015 2016. "Highlights from Rio 2016 Olympic opening ceremony". Toronto Star 2016. "Kip Keino to receive Olympic Laurel distinction". IOC 2016. "No introduction for Brazil's president at start of opening ceremony". 2016. "Emanuel surpreende e oferece sua medalha de ouro para Vanderlei Cordeiro" [Emanuel surprises and offers his gold medal to Vanderlei Cordeiro] (in Portuguese). Folha Online. 1 September 2004 2012. "Mystery Solved: Why Rio Olympics' cauldron is so tiny". 2016. "Formerly homeless boy who lit Olympic cauldron now has 'beautiful life". 2016. "Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima se eterniza como herói e ganha a medalha de ouro". 2016.. "Golf among seven sports seeking inclusion in 2016 Games". ESPN. 25 April 2008 2008. "Olympic Leaders Approve Golf and Rugby for 2016 Summer Games". Fox News Channel. 13 August 2009 2009. "Olympics 2016: IOC Approves Golf And Rugby Sevens To Be Included In Rio De Janeiro Games". Sky (United Kingdom). Archived from the original on 22 May 2011 2010. "Kiteboarding to replace windsurfing at 2016 Rio Olympics". BBC News 2012. "Windsurfing restored to Brazil 2016 Olympics". BBC News 2012. "Armstrong confession could see cycling out of Olympics". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 January 2013 2013. "Rio Olympics gets 1st qualified athletes". . Associated Press. 26 August 2014 2014. "UCI and IOC agree qualification quotas for Rio 2016". Reuters. 7 May 2014 2014. "Weightlifting qualification criteria for Rio 2016 approved by IOC". Inside the Games 2014. "Bulgarian weightlifters banned from Rio Olympics after CAS rejects appeal against ban for doping violations". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 January 2016. "Strong statement by the IWF Executive Board". International Weightlifting Federation. 22 June 2016 2016. "Olympics-Kuwait ban remains in force as ties with IOC deteriorate". 2016. "Refugees can compete for first time in 2016 Rio Olympics, IOC head says". ESPN. 27 October 2015 2015. "Rio 2016: Refugee team to compete at Olympics". BBC Sport 2016. "Athletics doping: Russia provisionally suspended by IAAF". BBC Sport 2015. "Russian whistleblower Yuliya Stepanova to compete as 'neutral athlete' in Rio". 2016. "Background Information to the decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". 24 July 2016. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016 2016. "National Houses". Organizing Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Rio 2016. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016 2016. "Tickets". NOC*NSF. 31 March 2015 2015. "Why all the midnight madness for some Olympians?". 2016. "Australia's Olympic swimmers can sleep easy at Rio despite late night meets thanks to recovery training". 2016. "Greed, Passion, Lust, Betrayal, and the Olympics in Between". 2016. "Swimming, beach volleyball will be on late in Rio". . Archived from the original on 8 January 2016 2015. "Rio 2016 Ingressos – Compre seu ingresso para as Olímpiadas". (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 24 August 2016 2016. "Rio Olympics 2016: Spectacular closing ceremony as Olympic flag goes to Tokyo". 2016. "Rio 2016: Rosa Magalhães deve comandar encerramento". (in Portuguese). 19 September 2015 2016. . Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN 2804554 . "Olympic Broadcasting: Inside the Chief Executive's Office". 2016. "Olympics in VR: NBC to Present 85 Hours of Virtual-Reality Content on Samsung Devices". 2016. "Rio Olympics: NBC Plans 4K and High Dynamic Range for Opening Ceremony Coverage". 2016. "IOC reaches agreement for 2014 & 2016 broadcast rights in Brazil" (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 27 August 2009 2017. "Rio 2016 launch "A New World" slogan". Inside the games. "A New World: Rio 2016 unveils official slogan for Olympic". Chinese Olympic Committee. "Rio 2016 Games Unveils Olympic Slogan: A New World". "Meet the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games mascots and help choose their names". . 23 November 2014. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016 2016. "2016 Rio Olympics: Biggest stars, dates, schedule, mascots, logo, Usain Bolt 'triple triple', Zika". 2016. "Rio 2016: Olympic and Paralympic mascots launched" 2014. "Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic mascots named Vinicius and Tom by public vote". . 14 December 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2016 2016. "Olympic Wrestling Uses Stuffed Animals for Replay Challenges". . Vice Media. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016 2016. "Hated the London 2012 Logo? You Might Like Rio 2016 Better Brazil's Tatíl Design tells story of its creation". Adweek 2012. "Rio 2016 motif is "first 3D logo in the history of the Olympics" says designer". 2016. "Telluride Foundation says Brazil stole its logo for Olympics". . Archived from the original on 10 May 2016 2016. "Zika virus: Olympic venues to be inspected daily before and during Games". BBC Sport. 29 January 2016 2016. "What Happens When There's Poop in the Water". 2016. "The Games will go ahead": Tourists have a near-zero chance of getting Zika at the Rio Olympics". 2016. "150 experts say Olympics must be moved or postponed because of Zika". 2016. "Zika crisis: WHO rejects 'move Rio Olympics' call". BBC News 2016. "Rio 2016: Are tennis players using Zika as an excuse?". CNN. 21 July 2016 2016. "Olympics-Golf-Zika an excuse for top ranked players, says Van Zyl". Yahoo! 2016. "No Zika cases from Olympics, says WHO". 2016. "Note to Olympic Sailors: Don't Fall in Rio's Water". 2016. "Rio's Olympic waters blighted by heavy pollution". BBC News 2014. "German sailor blames infections on water at Rio 2016 Olympic test event". The Guardian. 28 August 2015 2016. "Super bacteria' found in Rio waters where sailors and windsurfers are supposed to compete in the Olympics". 2016. "USOC, athletes navigate questions swirling around Rio's contaminated water". . 9 March 2016 2016. "Record Brazil protests put Rousseff's future in doubt". Reuters 2016. Segal, David (7 August 2015). "Petrobras Oil Scandal Leaves Brazilians Lamenting a Lost Dream". The New York Times. "Millennials Are Taking to the Streets to Defend Democracy in Brazil". The Nation 2016. "Processo de impeachment é aberto, e Dilma é afastada por até 180 dias". G1 (in Portuguese). Rede Globo. 12 May 2016 2017. "Rio Mayor Promises Crackdown on Violence". CBS News. Associated Press. 19 October 2009 2017. "Terroristas divulgam 'manual' para ataques nos Jogos do Rio" (in Portuguese). Terra. 20 July 2016 2016. "Brazil Authorities Arrest 12th Suspect in Alleged Olympics Terror Plot". 2017. "Between hope and despair". D+C, development and cooperation 2016. "Parte de ciclovia desaba em São Conrado, Zona Sul do Rio" [Part of bike path collapses in São Conrado, south of Rio]. (in Portuguese). 21 April 2016 2016. "Rio bike path collapse kills 2, injures 3". CNN 2016. "Rio Olympics Organizers Scurry to Fix Up Athletes' Village". 2017. "Rio Olympics head Carlos Nuzman charged with corruption". BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2017 "Update on the status of Russia testing" . "MCLAREN INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT - PART I". "WADA Statement: Independent Investigation confirms Russian State manipulation of the doping control process". "Decision of the IOC Executive Board concerning the participation of Russian athletes in the Olympic Games Rio 2016". IOC. 24 July 2016 2016. "IOC sets up 3-person panel to rule on Russian entries". . Archived from the original on 31 July 2016 2016. "Rio 2016: 270 Russians cleared to compete at Olympic Games". . Archived from the original on 4 August 2016 2016. "Exclusive: Pound confident Russian athletes will be found guilty of Sochi 2014 doping despite IOC inaction". "Doping pressure mounts on IOC at German parliament". "The IPC suspends the Russian Paralympic Committee with immediate effect". "MCLAREN INDEPENDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT - PART II". . 9 December 2016. "Russia's Doping Program Laid Bare by Extensive Evidence in Report". . "McLaren report: more than 1,000 Russian athletes involved in doping conspiracy". . "Emails show how Russian officials covered up mass doping". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. "Bulgaria Olympic ban confirmed by Court of Arbitration for Sport". . 29 January 2016 2017. "Romania, Belarus canoe teams banned from Olympics for doping". 2017. edit 2016 Summer Olympics. 2016 Summer Olympics. 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