prince edward island canada
Prince Edward Islands.
Coat of arms
Wade MacLauchlan (Liberal)
Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island
4 of 105 (3.8%)
(2,190 sq mi)
(2,190 sq mi)
(0 sq mi) 0%
2 (65.4/sq mi)
English (de facto)
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 code
Pink lady's slipper
provinces and territories
( or ; French: ) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands. Prince Edward Island is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in both land area and population. It is part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, and became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873. Its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 142,907 residents.
farming; it produces 25% of Canada's potatoes. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province. Historically, PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and French surnames being dominant to this day.
Halifax, Nova Scotia, and 600 kilometres (370 miles) east of Quebec City. It consists of the main island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km (2,195.39 sq mi). The main island is 5,620 km (2,170 sq mi) in size, slightly larger than the U.S. state of Delaware. It is the 104th-largest island in the world and Canada's 23rd-largest island. PEI is the only subnational jurisdiction of North America outside the Caribbean to have no mainland territory, and the only such jurisdiction to have no land boundary, as the U.S. state of Hawaii is a part of Oceania, not North America.
1834 Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, after W. Beechey's portrait
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown". The following island landmarks are also named after the Duke of Kent:
, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean (St. John's Island). The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as (lit. "the Island of the Prince", the local form of the longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI (lit. "John's Island" in reference to the island's former name). The island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as or roughly translated as "land cradled in the waves".
Geography of Prince Edward Island
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A wooden boardwalk in Prince Edward Island National Park in Greenwich
Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas. The largest surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown, and suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km (25 mi) west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists primarily of the city of Summerside. As with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias.
pastoral. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.] Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control.
The landward side of sand dunes in Cavendish
Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables (1908). Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, and enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island.
small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties.
beaches, dunes, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, and numerous bays and harbours. The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province; the sand grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each other when walked on, and have been called the "singing sands".
dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnificent sand dunes at Greenwich are of particular significance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants; it is also a site of significant archeological interest.
rural province, it is the most densely populated province in Canada.
Prince Edward Island amongst the Maritimes
As such, it is milder than inland locations owing to the warm waters from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The climate is characterized by changeable weather throughout the year; it has some of the most variable day-to-day weather in Canada, in which specific weather conditions seldom last for long.
The climate is considered to be more continental than oceanic since the Gulf of St. Lawrence freezes over, thus eliminating any moderation. The mean temperature is −7 °C (19 °F) in January. During the winter months, the island usually has many storms (which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards since during this time, storms originating from the North Atlantic or the Gulf of Mexico frequently pass through. Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May. Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as 30 °C (86 °F). Autumn is a pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset of frost, although storm activity increases compared to the summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn, early winter and mid spring.
sedimentary basin, and make up the island's bedrock. When the Pleistocene glaciers receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as till were left behind to cover most of the area that would become the island. This area was connected to the mainland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the glaciers melted this land strip was flooded, forming the island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, the island rose up to elevate it further from the surrounding water.
sandstone, part of the Permian aged Pictou Group.
natural gas beneath the northeastern end of the province resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of gas. The Island was reported by government to have only 0.08 tcf of "technically recoverable" natural gas. Twenty exploration wells for hydrocarbon resources have been drilled on Prince Edward Island and offshore. The first reported well was Hillsborough No.#1, drilled in Charlottetown Harbour in 1944 (the world’s first offshore well), and the most recent was New Harmony No.#1 in 2007. Since the resurgence of exploration in the mid-1990s, all wells that have shown promising gas deposits have been stimulated through hydraulic fracture or “fracking”. All oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation activities on the Island are governed by the R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. 0-5 and its associated regulations and orders.
The Winter River watershed provides about 92 per cent of the 18 million litre water supply for the city of Charlottetown, which had difficulty in each of 2011, 2012 and 2013 with its supply, until water meters were installed.
Robert Mitchell tabled a discussion paper on the proposed for the province on July 8, 2015. The use of groundwater came under scrutiny as the potato industry, which accounts for $1 billion every year and 50% of farm receipts, has pressed the government to lift a moratorium on high-capacity water wells for irrigation. The release of the discussion paper was to set off a consultation process in the autumn of 2015.
Department of Environment, Labour and Justice. It provides a summary of the ongoing testing of drinking water done by the Prince Edward Island Analytical Laboratories. Average drinking water quality results are available, and information on the following parameters are provided: alkalinity, cadmium, calcium, chloride, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, nitrate, pH, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfate, as well as the presence of pesticides. Water testing services are provided for a variety of clients through the PEI Analytical Laboratories, which assesses according to the recommendations of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada.
red foxes, coyote, blue jays, and robins. Skunks and raccoons are common non-native species. Species at risk in P.E.I. include piping plovers, american eel, bobolinks, little brown bat, and beach pinweed.
ascomycete species, (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), was collected from submerged wood in a freshwater creek on Prince Edward Island, Canada. North Atlantic right whales, one of the rarest whale species, were once thought to be rare visitors into St. Lawrence regions until 1994, have been showing dramatic increases (annual concentrations were discovered off Percé in 1995 and gradual increases across the regions since in 1998), and since in 2014, notable numbers of whales have been recorded around Cape Breton to Prince Edward Island as 35 to 40 whales were seen in these areas in 2015.
History of Prince Edward Island
Lighthouse on Panmure Island
Mi'kmaq First Nations have inhabited Prince Edward Island as part of the region of Mi'kma'ki. They named the Island , meaning "cradled on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as . Another name is . The Mi'kmaq's legend is that the island was formed by the Great Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent-shaped clay. There are two Mi'kmaq First Nation communities on Epekwitk today.
Jacques Cartier was the first European to see the island. In 1604, France claimed the lands of the Maritimes, including Prince Edward Island, establishing the French colony of Acadia. The island was named by the French. The Mi'kmaq never recognized the claim but welcomed the French as trading partners and allies.
Siege of Louisbourg (1745) during the War of the Austrian Succession, the New Englanders also captured Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph du Pont Duvivier, the French had a garrison of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye. The troops fled and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground. Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq. The French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders to their boats, nine New Englanders killed, wounded or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six Acadian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control. The New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Île Royal were deported to France. The Acadians of Île Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war.
Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot
Battle at Port-la-Joye
Port-La-Joye. To regain Acadia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join forces with the Duc d'Anville expedition. Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Île Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force. After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye. In July 1746, the battle happened near York River. Montesson and his troops killed forty New Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.
Acadians lived on the island, many of whom had fled to the island from mainland Nova Scotia during the first wave of the British-ordered expulsion in 1755, reaching a population of 5,000. However, many more were forcibly deported during the second wave of the expulsion after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758). In the Île Saint-Jean Campaign (1758) General Jeffery Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo to capture the island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion en route to France; on December 13, 1758, the transport ship Duke William sank and 364 died. A day earlier the Violet sank and 280 died; several days later sank with 213 on board.
Great Britain claimed the island as part of Nova Scotia in 1763, when France gave up its claim to the island. This was under the terms of the Treaty of Paris which settled the Seven Years' War. The island was split into a separate colony in 1769, which the British called St. John's Island (also the Island of St. John's). The high influx of Scottish Highlanders in the late 1700s resulted in P.E.I. having the highest provincial percentage of Scottish immigrants in Canada. (Not to underestimate the highest percentage of Scottish on nearby Cape Breton Island, however only being a part thereof the province of Nova Scotia.) This, in turn, led to a higher proportion of Scottish Gaelic speakers and thriving culture surviving on P.E.I. than Scotland itself, as the settlers avoided English influence overseas. Hence the formally existing Prince Edward Island Highland Regiment founded in 1875.
Walter Patterson, was appointed in 1769. Assuming office in 1770, he had a controversial career during which land title disputes and factional conflict slowed the initial attempts to populate and develop the island under a feudal system. In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his first acts (1770) Patterson led the island's colonial assembly to rename the island "New Ireland", but the British Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the authority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy Council in London could change the name of a colony.
King George III by means of a lottery. Ownership of the land remained in the hands of landlords in England, angering Island settlers who were unable to gain title to land on which they worked and lived. Significant rent charges (to absentee landlords) created further anger. The land had been given to the absentee landlords with a number of conditions attached regarding upkeep and settlement terms; many of these conditions were not satisfied. Islanders spent decades trying to convince the Crown to confiscate the lots, however the descendants of the original owners were generally well connected to the British government and refused to give up the land.
American Revolutionary War Charlottetown was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed privateers. Two armed schooners, and , from Beverly, Massachusetts, made prisoner of the attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight fishing vessels in the Gut of Canso.
Loyalist refugees from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come.
Daniel Patterson, became a noted United States Navy hero, and John's grandsons, Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson and Lt. Carlile Pioou). Edmund Fanning, also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.]
Saint John, New Brunswick and St. John's in Newfoundland. The colony's new name honoured the fourth son of King George III, Prince Edward Augustus, the Duke of Kent (1767–1820), who subsequently led the British military forces on the continent as Commander-in-Chief, North America (1799–1800), with his headquarters in Halifax. (Prince Edward later became the father of the future Queen Victoria.)
The flag of the Dominion of Prince Edward Island.
Charlottetown Conference, which was the first meeting in the process leading to the Quebec Resolutions and the creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did not find the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United Kingdom. In the late 1860s, the colony examined various options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations from the United States, who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States.]
Prince Edward Island, then St. John's Island, map 1775
railway and, frustrated by Great Britain's Colonial Office, began negotiations with the United States.] In 1873, Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald, anxious to thwart American expansionism and facing the distraction of the Pacific Scandal, negotiated for Prince Edward Island to join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colony's extensive railway debts and agreed to finance a buy-out of the last of the colony's absentee landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished through the passage of the Land Purchase Act, 1875). Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1, 1873.
ferry vessel, and the Confederation Bridge (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province honouring this event is the Confederation Centre of the Arts, presented as a gift to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the "Fathers of Confederation". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.
Demographics of Prince Edward Island
the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish descent (39.2%), followed by English (31.1%), Irish (30.4%), French (21.1%), German (5.2%), and Dutch (3.1%) descent. Prince Edward Island's population is largely white; there are few visible minorities. Chinese Canadians are the largest visible minority group of Prince Edward Island, comprising 1.3% of the province's population. Almost half of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".
† Preliminary 2006 census estimate.
Mother tongue in Prince Edward Island (red: English, blue: French). The only part of the province to have a Francophone majority is the Evangeline Region.
Canada 2016 Census showed a population of 142,910. Of the 140,020 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were as follows:
Chinese languages, not otherwise specified
Roman Catholic Church with 63,240 (47%) and various Protestant churches with 57,805 (43%). This included the United Church of Canada with 26,570 (20%); the Presbyterian Church with 7,885 (6%) and the Anglican Church of Canada with 6,525 (5%); those with no religion were among the lowest of the provinces with 8,705 (6.5%). If one considers that the founders of the United Church of Canada were largely Presbyterians in Prince Edward Island, the Island has one of the highest percentages of Presbyterians in the country. The Island also has one of the largest number of Free Church of Scotland buildings in Canada, though attendance at many of these churches is very low today.
Fisheries form one of the major industries of Prince Edward Island
1872 $10 Bank of Prince Edward Island banknote depicting fishing
Sandstone cliffs at North Cape shrouded in fog
Rolling hills cover a significant portion of the island's landscape.
fishery. The province is limited in terms of heavy industry and manufacturing, though Cavendish Farms runs extensive food manufacturing operations on PEI.
hectares) with approximately 594,000 acres (240,383 hectares) cleared for agricultural use. In 2006, the Census of Agriculture counted 1700 farms on the Island. During the 20th century, potatoes replaced mixed farming as the leading cash crop, accounting for one-third of provincial farm income.] The number of acres under potato production in 2010 was 88,000, while soy accounted for 55,000. There are approximately 330 potato growers on PEI, with the grand majority of these being family farms, often with multiple generations working together. The province currently accounts for a third of Canada's total potato production, producing approximately 1.3 billion kilograms (1,400,000 short tons) annually. Comparatively, the state of Idaho produces approximately 6.2 billion kilograms (6,800,000 short tons) annually, with a population approximately 9.5 times greater. The province is a major producer of seed potatoes, exporting to more than twenty countries around the world. An estimated total of 70% of the land is cultivated and 25% of all potatoes grown in Canada originate from P.E.I. The processing of frozen fried potatoes, green vegetables, and berries is a leading business activity.
of 1982. Residents and corporations are limited to maximum holdings of 400 and 1,200 hectares respectively. There are also restrictions on non-resident ownership of shorelines.
Farmland on Prince Edward Island.
lobster fishing as well as oyster fishing and mussel farming.
beer and soft drinks in non-refillable containers, such as aluminum cans or plastic bottles, was banned in 1976 as an environmental measure in response to public concerns over litter. Beer and soft drink companies opted to use refillable glass bottles for their products which were redeemable at stores and bottle depots.
Making it illegal to retail cans led to a bigger share of the carbonated beverage market for Seamans. Seamans Beverages was eventually acquired by Pepsi Bottling Group Inc in 2002 prior to the lifting of the legislation.
sales tax rate at 9%. The tax is applied to almost all goods and services except some clothing, food and home heating fuel. The tax, along with the Federal Goods and Services Tax, is incorporated into the Harmonized Sales Tax in the province.
gas, diesel, propane and heating oil. These are regulated through the Prince Edward Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission (IRAC). IRAC is authorized to limit the number of companies who are permitted to sell petroleum products.
and the minimum wage of $10.50/hour as of July 1, 2015.
electricity consumed on the island is generated from renewable energy (largely wind turbines); the provincial government has set renewable energy targets as high as 30-50% for electricity consumed by 2015. Until wind generation, the province relied entirely on electricity imports on a submarine cable from New Brunswick. A thermal oil-fired generating station in Charlottetown is also available. Electricity rates in the province were in 2011 the highest in Canada, at a domestic rate of 0.161 $/kWh. The province imports about 85 per cent of its power through New Brunswick. The maintenance shutdown of Point Lepreau nuclear plant forced the province to acquire most of its electrons on the expensive open market. The result was a steep price hikes of about 25 per cent in the three years to 2011 but the province later subsidised rates. Residents were to pay 11.2 per cent more for electricity when the harmonized sales tax was adopted in April 2013, according to the P.E.I. Energy Accord that was tabled in the legislature on December 7, 2012. and passed as the , which establishes electric pricing from April 1, 2013, to March 1, 2016. Regulatory powers are derived for IRAC from the . Since 1918 Maritime Electric has delivered electricity to customers on the Island. The utility is currently owned and operated by Fortis Inc.
Government of Prince Edward Island and Politics of Prince Edward Island
parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Prince Edward Island is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island (presently Antoinette Perry), carries out most of the royal duties in Prince Edward Island.
the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected Legislative Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Prince Edward Island (presently Wade MacLauchlan), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Jamie Fox) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district. General elections are called by the lieutenant governor on the first Monday in October four years after the previous election, or may be called, on the advice of the premier, should the government lose a confidence vote in the legislature. Traditionally, politics in the province have been dominated by both the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party. But however, since 2015 election, Green Party of Prince Edward Island has to begin rising in couple districts as of late 2017 with then-recent was Charlottetown-Parkdale district has elected one of Party's member Hannah Bell from formerly seated Liberal MLA Doug Currie.
List of municipalities in Prince Edward Island
Census agglomeration population: 58,358.
Census agglomeration population: 16,200.
Census agglomeration population: 6,011.
Cardigan River, one of The Three Rivers
Georgetown, and Souris —linked to its railway system, and the two main airports in Charlottetown and Summerside, for communication with mainland North America. The railway system was abandoned by CN in 1989 in favour of an agreement with the federal government to improve major highways.
ferry services to the mainland: one, provided by Marine Atlantic, operated year-round between Borden and Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick; the other, provided by Northumberland Ferries Limited, operates seasonally between Wood Islands and Caribou, Nova Scotia. A third ferry service provided by CTMA operates all year round with seasonal times between Souris and Cap-aux-Meules, Quebec, in the Magdalen Islands.
Confederation Bridge opened, connecting Borden-Carleton to Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. The world's longest bridge over ice-covered waters, it replaced the Marine Atlantic ferry service. Since then, the Confederation Bridge's assured transportation link to the mainland has altered the province's tourism and agricultural and fisheries export economies.
Charlottetown Airport (CYYG); the Summerside Airport (CYSU) is an additional option for general aviation.
Billboards and the use of portable signs are banned. There are standard direction information signs on roads in the province for various businesses and attractions in the immediate area. Some municipalities' by-laws also restrict the types of permanent signs that may be installed on private property.
Confederation Trail is a 470 kilometres (290 mi) recreational trail system. The land was once owned and used by Canadian National Railway (CN) as a rail line on the island.
University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI), located in the city of Charlottetown.
Prince of Wales College and St. Dunstan's University. UPEI is also home to the Atlantic Veterinary College, which offers the region's only veterinary medicine program.
Holland College is the provincial community college, with campuses across the province, including specialised facilities such as the Atlantic Police Academy, Marine Training Centre, and the Culinary Institute of Canada.
Maritime Christian College. It is also home to Immanuel Christian School, a private Christian School in Charlottetown.
English Language School Board, as well as a Francophone district, the Commission scolaire de langue française. The English language districts have a total of 10 secondary schools and 54 intermediate and elementary schools while the Francophone district has 6 schools covering all grades. 22 per cent of the student population is enrolled in French immersion. This is one of the highest levels in the country.
youth emigration. The provincial government has projected that public school enrollment will decline by 40% during the 2010s.
Health care in Canada
Panorama of the banks of the Hunter River in New Glasgow
The coast of Prince Edward Island around Cavendish
Health PEI. Health PEI receives funding for its operations and is regulated by the Department of Health and Wellness.
Department of Environment, Labour and Justice provide advice to operators, as needed, on proper system maintenance. The IRAC regulates municipal water and sewer in the province, now under the . Since around 1900, the residents of the City of Charlottetown have benefited from a central sanitary sewer service. Early disposal practices, while advanced for their time, eventually were found to compromise the ecological integrity of the nearby Hillsborough River and the Charlottetown Harbour. By 1974, the Commission had spearheaded the development of a primary wastewater treatment plant, known as the Charlottetown Pollution Control Plant, together with the construction of several pumping stations along the City’s waterfront, and outfall piping deep into the Hillsborough River.
Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Charlottetown)
Prince County Hospital (Summerside)
Hillsborough Hospital (Charlottetown) - the province's only psychiatric hospital
Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine as a means to encourage new physicians to work in Prince Edward Island.
Electronic Health Record system.
IWK Health Centre and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre in Nova Scotia or the Saint John Regional Hospital, Moncton Hospital, and Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre in New Brunswick.
Island EMS. Air ambulance service is provided under contract by LifeFlight.
ecologists and environmental activists point to the use of pesticides for industrial potato farming as a primary contaminant.
abortion services through its hospitals. The last abortion was performed in the province in 1982 prior to the opening of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital which saw the closure of the Roman Catholic-affiliated Charlottetown Hospital and the non-denominational Prince Edward Island Hospital; a condition of the "merger" being that abortions not be performed in the province. In 1988, following the court decision R. v. Morgentaler, the then-opposition Progressive Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island tabled a motion demanding that the ban on abortions be upheld at the province's hospitals; the then-governing Prince Edward Island Liberal Party under Premier Joe Ghiz acquiesced and the ban was upheld. The Government of Prince Edward Island will fund abortions for women who travel to another province. Women from Prince Edward Island may also travel to the nearest private user-pay clinic, where they must pay for the procedure using their own funds. Formerly this was the Morgentaler Clinic in Fredericton, New Brunswick until this clinic closed due to lack of funds in July 2014. The clinic was reopened under new ownership in 2016 as Clinic 554 with expanded services. During that gap, women had to travel to Halifax or further. In 2016, the Liberal government led by Premier Wade MacLauchlan announced they would open a women's reproductive health clinic to provide abortions within the province.
Music of Prince Edward Island
Sandstone arch off the coast of Darnley
Charlottetown Festival, hosted at the Confederation Centre of the Arts.
Lucy Maud Montgomery, who was born in Clifton (now New London) in 1874, wrote some 20 novels and numerous short stories that have been collected into anthologies. Her first book Anne of Green Gables was published in 1908. The musical play Anne of Green Gables has run every year at the Charlottetown festival for more than four decades. The sequel, Anne & Gilbert, premiered in the Playhouse in Victoria in 2005. The actual location of Green Gables, the house featured in Montgomery's books, is in Cavendish, on the north shore of PEI.
Elmer Blaney Harris founded an artists colony at Fortune Bridge and set his famous play Johnny Belinda on the island. Robert Harris was a well-known artist.
Gene MacLellan, his daughter Catherine MacLellan, Al Tuck, Lennie Gallant, Two Hours Traffic and Paper Lions. The celebrated singer-songwriter Stompin' Tom Connors spent his formative years in Skinners Pond. Celtic music is certainly the most common traditional music on the island, with fiddling and step dancing being very common. This tradition, largely Scottish, Irish and Acadian in origin is very similar to the music of Cape Breton and to a lesser extent, Newfoundland and is unique to the region. Due to the Islands influence as a former Highlander Clans Scottish colony, a March 4/4 for bagpipes was composed in honour of Prince Edward Island. There is also an annual jazz festival, the P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival.
Category:Festivals in Prince Edward Island
Charlottetown Festival, hosted at the Confederation Centre of the Arts as well as the Island Fringe Festival that takes place around Charlottetown. An annual jazz festival, the P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival. is a one-week-long series of concerts taking place at several venues including Murphy's Community Center, outdoor stages, and churches in Charlottetown. The moving of its date to mid-August caused in 2011 a serious loss in funding from Ottawa's regional development agency ACOA. The musician's line up in 2011 included Oliver Jones, Sophie Milman, Matt Dusk, Jack de Keyzer, Jack Semple, Meaghan Smith, Meaghan Blanchard, Hupman Brothers, Alex Dean, Charlie A'Court, Sean Ferris, Jimmy Bowskill, West End Blues Band, Bad Habits, Brian McConnell and Mellotones.] There is also Canada Rocks, and the Cavendish Beach Music Festival. With agriculture and fishery playing a large role in the economy, P.E.I. has been marketed as a food tourism destination. Several food festivals have become popular such as the Fall Flavours festival and the Shellfish Festival.
Canada Winter Games.
Canada Summer Games.
Charlottetown Islanders play in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League.
Island Storm play in the National Basketball League of Canada.
Summerside Western Capitals play in the Maritime Junior A Hockey League.
Milton James Rhode Acorn – poet/playwright
Francis Bain – author, scientist, farmer
Catherine Callbeck – former premier, first woman to be elected as premier in a general election
Dave Cameron – Calgary Flames assistant coach
Alex Campbell – former premier
George Coles – former premier, Father of Confederation
Jared Connaughton – former Olympic sprinter
Lloyd Duffy – thoroughbred jockey, harness racing driver
Mike Duffy – television journalist, senator
Gerard Gallant – Vegas Golden Knights head coach
Millie Gamble – early amateur photographer
Joe Ghiz – former premier
George Godfrey – boxer
Francis Longworth Haszard – politician, jurist
Haywire – rock band
Hangman Hughes (aka Kowboy Mike Hughes) – professional wrestler
Lorie Kane – professional golfer
Forbes Kennedy – retired NHL player
Joey Kitson – singer
David Laird – framer of the Indian Act and first resident Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories
Amber MacArthur – broadcasting personality and author
Alexander Wallace Matheson – politician
John Alexander Mathieson – educator, politician, jurist
David (Eli) MacEachern – Olympic gold medalist and world champion in bobsledding
Martha MacIsaac – actress
Adam McQuaid – Boston Bruins defenceman
Lucy Maud Montgomery – author
Heather Moyse - two-time Olympic gold medalist in bobsledding
Steve Ott - retired– tired NHL player
Claire Rankin – actress
Brad Richards – retired NHL Player
James Jeffrey Roche – poet and diplomat
Jacob Gould Schurman – educator and diplomat
Michael Smith – chef and television host
Mark Strand – poet
Joe O'Brien – harness racing driver, trainer
Lemuel Cambridge Owen – shipbuilder, banker
Edward Palmer – lawyer, politician
Paper Lions – pop band
James Colledge Pope – businessman, former premier
William Henry Pope – land agent, lawyer, jurist
Whitney Rose – country musician
Jonathan Torrens – actor and television host
Two Hours Traffic – pop band
Weston Thomas "Bucko" Trainor – hockey player
Alexander Bannerman Warburton – former premier
George Wood – professional baseball player
Hainan Province, China, has been the sister province of Prince Edward Island since 2001. This came about after Vice-Governor Lin Fanglue stayed for two days to hold discussions about partnership opportunities and trade.
Prince Edward Island portal
Outline of Prince Edward Island
Acadiensis, scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada
Index of Canada-related articles
List of people from Prince Edward Island
"Land and freshwater area, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. February 1, 2005 2012.
"Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada. February 6, 2017 2017.
"Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014 2016.
"Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013 2013.
. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2013.
Natural Resources Canada (August 2009). "The Atlas of Canada - Sea Islands" 2012.
"Prince Edward Island". The Canadian Encyclopedia 2015.
"The Climate of Prince Edward Island". . Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20 2015.
"Climate and Weather". Government of Prince Edward Island 2015.
. Natural Science of Canada Ltd. Toronto. 1970. pp. 30–31. LCCCN 70109048.
Parks Canada, Teacher Resource Centre, Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada Retrieved: April 6, 2011.
"Pictou Group" 2013.
thecanadianencyclopedia.ca: "Prince Edward Island - Mining"
nrcan.gc.ca: "Prince Edward Island’s Shale and Tight Resources"
carlottetown.pe.ca: "Water Utility"
cbc.ca: "Water supply worries prompt Charlottetown meeting", November 30, 2011.
cbc.ca: "Charlottetown opens emergency water supply", July 10, 2012.
cbc.ca: "Charlottetown relies on secondary water source", August 14, 2013.
"PEI Potato". PEI Potato 2015.
cbc.ca: "Water Act white paper tabled by P.E.I. government", July 8, 2015.
gov.pe.ca: "Environment - Drinking Water Quality"
gov.pe.ca: "Getting your water tested"
"Macphail Woods: Watersheds". .
"Parks Canada - Prince Edward Island National Park - especesenperil-speciesatrisk". .
"Freshwater ascomycetes: Jahnula apiospora (Jahnulales, Dothideomycetes), a new species from Prince Edward Island, Canada" 2013.
Island Information: Quick Facts, website of the Government of Prince Edward Island, 2010-04-27. Retrieved on October 25, 2010.
. Lennox Island Band Council & Ragwee Press. p. 6. ISBN 0920304915.
"It's all Mi'kmaq land': Why First Nations claim P.E.I. as their own". CBC News 2017.
"Mi'kmaw History – Timeline (Post-Contact)". Muiniskw.org. 2011-08-04.
"LEGARDEUR DE CROISILLE ET DE MONTESSON, JOSEPH-MICHEL - Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online". Biographi.ca. 2007-10-18.
, Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton, Alberta (1988), p. 1753.
. University of Nebraska Press. p. 366.
, p. 15.
"Historical Milestones" 2007.
. University of British Columbia, 2003, p. 58.
"Assembly Timeline" . . Government of Prince Edward Island 2011.
"Canadian Confederation, Provinces and Territories, Prince Edward Island" 2009.
"Prince Edward Island". . Parks Canada 2011.
Confederation Centre of the Arts National Historic Site of Canada. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
"Population urban and rural, by province and territory". Archived from the original on May 1, 2008.
"Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data".
, National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011.
Statistics Canada (2002). "Population of Canada's Provinces". Archived from the original on March 23, 2007 2007.
PEI population trend Archived February 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. (Statistics Canada).
Population urban and rural, by province and territory Archived November 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. (Statistics Canada, 2005).
"Prince Edward Island [Economic region], Prince Edward Island and Canada [Country] (table). Census Profile". Ottawa: Statistics Canada. September 13, 2017 2017.
"Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca 2011.
gov.pe.ca: "Agriculture on Prince Edward Island"
statcan.gc.ca: "Census of Agriculture counts 1700 farms in Prince Edward Island"
maisonneuve.org: "When the Monks Come to Town", June 18, 2013.
"Idaho Potato Production". Potatopro.com. November 12, 2008 2011.
. New York: H.W. Wilson Co. p. 159. ISBN 9780824208646.
. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2013.
irac.pe.ca: "The Prince Edward Island Lands Protection Act - Frequently Asked Questions Including Information on Non-Resident, Corporate & Global Permit Applications for Land Acquisition in Prince Edward Island"
"PEI BioScience Cluster - Prince Edward Island BioAlliance - Overview". .
"Government of Prince Edward Island".
"Pepsi Bottling Group To Acquire Seaman's Beverages". SmartBrief. 2002-04-03.
"PEI Bans the Can". Archived from the original on January 7, 2006 2007.
"End to can ban receives full support of legislature". 2007.
"Government to lift "can-ban" May 3 beverage container management system encourages returns and recycling" 2008.
Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission (PEI Government).
"Summary Tables". 0.statcan.ca. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012 2012.
"Minimum Wage Order". Archived from the original on January 4, 2009 2015.
cbc.ca: "Electricity in Prince Edward Island", March 30, 2011.
cbc.ca: "Electricity rates rising 11.2% next year", December 7, 2012.
irac.pe.ca: "Electric Regulation"
maritimeelectric.com: "About Us"
"Department of Canadian Heritage Portfolio" (2nd ed.). Queen's Printer for Canada: 3–4. ISBN 978-1-100-11529-0. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011 2011.
"Role > Role and Responsibilities". Queen's Printer for Prince Edward Island 2012.
"The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Queen's Printer for Canada 2011.
Elizabeth II (2008). "Election Act" . 4.1(2)(b): Queen's Printer for Prince Edward Island 2012.
"Confederation Bridge". September 2009. (official website).
"New School Board".
gov.pe.ca: "Central Wastewater Systems"
irac.pe.ca: "PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND - MUNICIPAL WATER & SEWERAGE UTILITIES - GENERAL RULES & REGULATIONS"
irac.pe.ca: "CHAPTER E-9 - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT - DRINKING WATER AND WASTEWATER FACILITY OPERATING REGULATIONS"
charlottetown.pe.ca: "City of Charlottetown Wastewater Treatment Expansion & Upgrading" (ca 2001).
"Pesticides are what's killing our kids". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007 2007.
"P.E.I. to 'stay with status quo' on abortions". National Post 2012.
"Abortion policy to remain same: Ghiz". The Guardian. Charlottetown, PUI 2010.
"P.E.I. won't change abortion policy". CBC News. July 19, 2000 2010.
"Abortion information line disconnected". CBC News. January 29, 2008 2010.
"Canada Health Act Violates Abortion Services: Five Basic Principles Not Met". Pro-Choice Action Network 2010.
"Your province and tax-funded abortions". Life Canada Inc. 2003. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008 2010.
"Morgentaler clinic in N.B. to close, citing no provincial funding". .
"New health centre in old Morgentaler clinic in N.B. to provide abortions". .
"P.E.I. moves to provide abortion services on the Island". .
"P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival" 2011.
"About the Island Fringe Festival". 2017.
"Jazz festival loses ACOA funding". . cbc.ca. August 9, 2011 2011.
"P.E.I. to become 'Canada's Food Island". .
"Ilê-du-Prince-Edouard: Communiqué (Vice-Governor from Chinese Sister Province Visits Prince Edward Island)". Gov.pe.ca.
. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press. ISBN 978-0-920304-81-5. OCLC 42887917.
. Belfast, P.E.I.: Ragweed Press. ISBN 0-920304-01-X. OCLC 4114534.
. Charlottetown: Prince Edward Island 1973 Centennial Commission. OCLC 1031515. Also under OCLC 223434609
. Charlottetown: Acorn Press. ISBN 978-0-9698606-1-7. OCLC 36817364.
. Kingston, ON: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-0566-7. OCLC 17199722 2009.
. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. OCLC 203962. A very broad look at the historical geography of P.E.I.
. Charlottetown: Institute of Island Studies. ISBN 978-0-919013-34-6. OCLC 123276052 2009.
. Charlottetown: Acorn Press. ISBN 978-1-894838-93-1.
. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-55059-104-0. OCLC 35292426.
. Summerside, P.E.I.: Prince Edward Island Liberal Party.
. Toronto: Steel Rail. ISBN 0-88791-003-3. OCLC 2893908.
. Charlottetown: Ragweed Press. ISBN 978-0-920304-10-5. OCLC 9469420.
. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press. OCLC 1678512 2009.
. Summerside, P.E.I.: Williams and Crue. OCLC 1340051.
Prince Edward Island.
Prince Edward Island.
The Government of Prince Edward Island Government official website
University of Prince Edward Island Digital Historical Archives
Prince Edward Island at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
The Government Prince Edward Island Visitor's Guide
CBC Digital Archives – PEI Elections: Liberal landslides and Tory tides
City of Charlottetown
Mi'kmaq Confederacy home page
Annandale-Little Pond-Howe Bay
Bedeque and Area
Lot 11 and Area
St. Peters Bay
Category:Prince Edward Island
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Coordinates: 46.250; -63.000
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Categories: Prince Edward Island1873 establishments in CanadaAtlantic CanadaBritish North AmericaFormer British colonies and protectorates in the AmericasIslands of Prince Edward IslandThe MaritimesStates and territories established in 1873Provinces of CanadaWebarchive template wayback linksUse mdy dates from March 2012Articles with short descriptionArticles containing French-language textArticles containing Mi'kmaq-language textArticles containing Latin-language textArticles needing additional references from April 2008All articles needing additional referencesAll articles with unsourced statementsArticles with unsourced statements from April 2011Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015Wikipedia articles in need of updating from March 2018All Wikipedia articles in need of updatingArticles with unsourced statements from November 2016Articles with Curlie linksCoordinates on WikidataWikipedia articles with BNF identifiersWikipedia articles with GND identifiersWikipedia articles with LCCN identifiersWikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiersWikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers
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