Countries that boycotted the 1980 Games are shaded blue
was one part of a number of actions initiated by the United States to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Soviet Union, which hosted the 1980 Summer Olympics, and other countries would later boycott the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
situation in Afghanistan at the 20 December 1979 meeting of NATO representatives. The idea was not completely new: since 1975/1976 proposals for an Olympic boycott circulated widely among human rights activists and groups as a sanction for Soviet violations of human rights. At that moment, not many of the member governments were interested in the proposal. The idea began to gain popularity in early January 1980 when Soviet dissident Andrei Sakharov called for a boycott. On 14 January 1980, the Carter Administration joined Sakharov's appeal and set a deadline by which the Soviet Union must pull out of Afghanistan or face the consequences, including an international boycott of the games. On 26 January 1980, Canadian Prime Minister Joe Clark announced that Canada, like the US, would boycott the Olympic Games if Soviet forces did not leave Afghanistan by 20 February 1980.
United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Robert Kane told the International Olympic Committee (IOC) that the USOC would be willing to send a team to Moscow if there were a "spectacular change in the international situation" in the coming weeks.
Lord Killanin, then president of the IOC, arranged to meet and discuss the boycott with Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, before the new 24 May deadline. Killanin insisted that the Games should continue as scheduled, while President Carter reaffirmed the US position. viz. to boycott the Games unless the USSR withdrew from Afghanistan.
Bilderberg meeting in Aachen included discussion of the implications of the boycott. The world would perceive a boycott, it was argued, as little more than a sentimental protest, not a strategic act. An African representative at the Bilderberg meeting voiced a different view: whether there was additional support outside the US or not, he believed, a boycott would be an effective symbolic protest and be dramatically visible to those within the Soviet Union. Some Russian dissidents expressed an opinion that boycott would be a strong message to the Soviets who breached the Olympic rules (using state-sponsored doping and professional athletes despite the fact that the rules of the time only allowed amateurs) to achieve their political goals. The Carter administration brought considerable pressure to bear on other NATO Member-States to support the boycott. Their support was not universal.
West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt said that the American attitude that the allies "should simply do as they are told" was unacceptable, although West Germany did join the boycott.
Muhammad Ali traveled to Tanzania, Nigeria, and Senegal to convince their leaders to join the boycott. He also successfully convinced the Kenyan government to do that.
West Germany where Chancellor Schmidt was able to convince the National Olympic Committee (NOC) to support the boycott. China, the Philippines, Chile, Argentina and Canada also boycotted the Games entirely. Some of these countries competed at the alternative "Liberty Bell Classic" or Olympic Boycott Games held in Philadelphia that same year.
equestrian sports, hockey, and yachting completely boycotted the 1980 summer Olympics.
All these countries participated under a neutral flag with the Olympic anthem played in any ceremony. Italian athletes serving in its military corps could not attend the Games, however, because of the national government's official support of the boycott. Many events were affected by the loss of participants and some US-born athletes who were citizens of other countries, such as Italy and Australia, did compete in Moscow.
Ayatollah Khomeini's new theocracy, Iran also boycotted the Moscow Games after Khomeini joined the condemnation by the United Nations and the Islamic Conference of the invasion of Afghanistan. Independently of the United States, the Islamic Conference urged a boycott of Moscow after the invasion; the Ayatollah meanwhile accused Moscow of arming the Baluchis against his regime.
Puerto Rico, San Marino, Spain, and Switzerland).
Four competitors (including one athlete) from New Zealand competed independently and marched under their NOC flag because the government officially supported the boycott. The athletes of 16 countries did not fly their national flags. Instead Olympic flags were raised and the Olympic Anthem replaced their national anthems at the medal ceremonies. There was one awards ceremony where three Olympic flags were raised.
Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau from attending the Moscow Games. Sandra Henderson and Stéphane Préfontaine, the final torchbearers at the previous games, were sent in his stead to participate in the Antwerp Ceremony at the opening ceremony, and at the closing ceremony, the Los Angeles city flag (rather than the United States flag) was raised to symbolize the next host of the Olympic Games. The Antwerp flag was received by an IOC member from the USA instead of the mayor of Los Angeles, Tom Bradley; there was no handover to Los Angeles ceremony at the closing.
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"We will go to the Olympics", Anti-boycott sticker, published by the Communist Youth Federation of Spain.
Nagoya Resolution, in which the People's Republic of China agreed to participate in IOC activities if Taiwan was referred to as "Chinese Taipei". However, China boycotted the 1980 Moscow Games as well.
Antigua and Barbuda
Central African Republic
Papua New Guinea
United Arab Emirates
Chef de Mission) who entered the Olympic stadium during the Opening Ceremony under the Olympic flag; for each country this was a token gesture, as their governments allowed athletes to take part in the Games if they chose to do so. Ireland also competed under the Olympic flag, rather than its own.
Great Britain – Richard Palmer
Ireland – Ken Ryan
Liberty Bell Classic for track and field and the USGF International Invitational for gymnastics. At the U.S. Swimming Nationals, the split and finishing times from the corresponding Olympic events the previous week were displayed on the scoreboards so that a virtual comparison of medals could be kept.
Soviet Union portal
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1986 Asian Games
"OLYMPICS;Bitterness Lingering Over Carter's Boycott". .
"Birth of Wayne Gretzky - Historica Canada". .
"The Olympic Boycott, 1980". .
"The President Said Nyet". .
Secretariat: Planning a response to the hostile campaign against participation in the Moscow Olympics, 29 January 1980, St 195/3, .
"Olympics: Lausanne IOC EXCOM Meeting", 23 April 1980, US Department of State, FOIA
Bilderberg meeting report Aachen, 1980. Retrieved 16 June 2009. Archived 19 June 2009.
"How the Russians break the Olympic rules". The Christian Science Monitor.
"The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". The New York Times.
"Olympics: IOC Message to Mr. Cutler", April 27, 1980, US Department of State, FOIA
. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1139788566. p. 121.
, pp. 115–118.
"Ali Spars With Second Thoughts As Africans Argue Boycott Issue". 2017.
"Muhammad Ali's Strange, Failed Diplomatic Career". 2017.
"Muhammad Ali: Africa remembers the boxing legend". ABC News (Australia) 2016.
"Governments slapped for boycott pressure". . Spokane, Washington. p. C1 2012.
1980 Summer Olympics Official Report from the Organizing Committee Archived June 22, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, vol. 2, p. 190.
; p. 193 ISBN 9780521358590
, p. 78 ISBN 0-521-35976-7
1980 Moscow. olympic.org.nz
. : 30599. December 1980.
Fimrite, Ron (July 28, 1980). "Only The Bears Were Bullish". SI Vault; CNN 2013.
"Olympics chief feared protests". Belfasttelegraph.co.uk. December 30, 2010 2013.
"...and meanwhile in Philadelphia". Sports Illustrated. (5): 18 2016.
"All that glitter was not gold". Sports Illustrated. (7): 32 2016.
. : 67–82.
. Washington D.C.: New Chapter Press.
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